Plasma exchange (PE) is a therapeutic blood component replacement method. The blood of patients is first separated into plasma and blood cell components using a blood cell separator in vitro, the plasma containing harmful pathogenic substances is then discarded and replaced with the same volume of exchange solution. Finally the separated blood cells together with the exchange solution are returned back to the blood circulation of patients. By reducing the circulating antibodies, abnormal plasma proteins or cytokines and other pathogenic molecules, PE can block the disease process. PE has a good therapeutic effect on neuromyelitis optica-related optic neuritis (NMO-ON), which shows resistant to glucocorticoid therapy for the first onset. The American Society for Apheresis guideline evaluates PE for acute optic neuritis as a recommended grade 1B, type II indication. In the implementation of PE treatment for NMO-ON and other diseases, indications and contraindications should be strictly adhered to the guideline, treatment procedures and protocols should be optimized, common adverse events and its prevention and management should be known and alerted. It is important to conduct multi-center clinical cooperation and a high standard clinical randomized controlled study, to find out the optimal time window, the best protocol, and the associated factors for the efficacy and prognosis of PE in NMO-ON.
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